The burning and pain you feel when you eat a chili pepper is caused by a compound called capsaicin. The active ingredient in chili peppers is a compound called capsaicin. When ingested, capsaicin triggers pain receptors whose normal evolutionary purpose is to alert the body to dangerous physical heat.
In humans, this is triggered via the same mechanism that helps us drop a hot pan if we forget oven mitts: the temperature sensation receptor TRPV1. The working theory is that eating chilies gives us the same sensation as if we were to actually eat too-hot bite of food, hence the burn. So why do we eat them if it hurts? Scientific American thinks we like the burn, tolerating the pain for the pleasure of the whole.
Perhaps we seek out the painful experience of snacking on chillies while consciously maintaining awareness that there is no real danger to ourselves.
Your Guide to the 10 Chile Peppers Most Likely to Show Up in a Recipe
After all, people seem to enjoy — and actively seek out — many other sensations that are otherwise undesirable but are ostensibly safe: the sensation of falling provided by rollercoasters or skydiving, the feelings of fear and anxiety while watching horror movies, the physical pain experienced upon jumping into icy water, or even the feelings of sadness that come while watching a tear-jerker.
Over the years, scientists have theorized that the evolutionary reason chilies burn is to dissuade mammals from eating them. In contrast, if mammals like cactus mice snacked on the chili plants, they ground up all the seeds in their teeth. Not good for continuation of the plant. So it makes sense, then, that the capsaicin would be an active deterrent for mammals — except us crazy humans who love them — and not for birds.
Unlike most foods humans are accustomed to eating, the chili pepper causes actual pain when ingested. That pain, scientists believe, is an artifact of evolution. When capsaicin comes in contact with nerve endings it trips a pain receptor whose normal function is to detect the kind of heat that is legitimately burning hot.
The receptor, known as TRPV1, is designed to keep us from doing dumb things like picking up a burning branch with our bare hands, or biting into something so hot it would physically damage our mouths.
All About Chile Peppers
As many of us have learned in our high school history classes, Columbus was seeking a new trade route to Asia, hankering for black peppercorns. From there it was traded via the Levant and the merchants of Venice to the rest of Europe — that is, until the Ottoman empire cut off the trade route in the mid s. Early reports from conquistadors cited a large presence of chilies in Aztec and Mayan traditions, used not only to flavour food but also to fumigate houses and to help cure illness.
Source: Multiple lines of evidence for the origin of domesticated chili pepper, Capsicum annuum, in Mexico. Her reasoning includes the fact that the Portuguese brought a specific type of Mexican-derived pepper C. Annuum var. In addition, the Spanish trade with the New World in the first part of the 16th century was quite limited compared to the Portuguese, who secretly traded in the New World despite the Treaty of the Tordesillas assigning most of the region to Spain in Per Andrews , a Portuguese official in India from reported that the new spice of chili peppers was welcomed by Indian cooks who, accustomed to pungent black pepper and biting ginger, already produced spicy foods.
This powerful red plant would do quite well in India. In the years that followed, New World goods and foods were funneled through Portuguese shipping routes. In addition, the sea lanes to Melacca and Indonesia included Chinese, Gujarati, and Arabic traders, who were able to add New World crops to their existing trade bounties. Diu fell after the Sultan of Gujarat formed an unhappy and ultimately unsuccessful defensive alliance with the Portuguese in the 16th century.
Anyone who has sobbed into a plate of Sichuan food knows how important they are to that region of China. I assumed the same, that chilies simply came up the relatively reasonable distance from Mexico to the United States. There are some articles that state as much. Despite this change, the chili did not take root in North America until the plantation system and African slavery were instituted. Chilies are one example, but so are many others — coffee in Colombia, tomatoes in Italy, potatoes in Ireland, and the many domesticated animals and infectious diseases that followed.
After all, it has truly spread to much of the world as we know it. I had wanted to know about which of the theories for North America was correct, if any. His response was essentially that there were wild chilies growing in Texas and the more arid Southwest, and that they were used in Native American cooking. So the plant was known by the Native American Indians and thus there was no specific need for a more domesticated variety.
A micro-history never satisfies me as much as a book does, so I wanted to make sure to give options for those who wanted to celebrate chili peppers in the kitchen and beyond. Less a micro-history and more a celebration of culinary philosophy and food culture over time, she teaches us about how food affects everything in society, from health, the economy, politics, society and the gods.
The result, seismic shifts in how people eat, yielding new cuisines that dominated the world. Chasing Chiles carries a weightier political message, assessing both the effects of climate change on how we harvest and grow our foods, and on where we can turn to if agriculture becomes unrecognizable inc oming years.
While chiles may be grown away from their original locations, some heirloom species are suffering under the weight of changing soil and environmental conditions. The book interviews farmers, chefs, and ethnobotanists, and includes not only research and field research! Tacos: Recipes and Provocations , by Alex Stupak. This cookbook, a further dive into the humble taco, is a beautiful read with glossy photos that will make your mouth water.
Chili pepper - Wikipedia
It is not simple, or easy. It is in fact, old—older even than the great cuisines of Europe, and often deeply complex, refined, subtle, and sophisticated. This illustrated coffee table book aggregates essays from historians around the world to share a detailed chronology of food.
Written by Jack Turner, a Brit with a great sense of humor, this history of spices and the spice trade takes you through the ages and into the minds and palates of explorers from hundreds of years ago to present day. Sadly because Lucky Peach is now defunct, we have lost this amazing piece with animated chilies to delineate between the many in Mexico. Along with guajillos, anchos are one of the workhorse chilies of the Mexican kitchen: abundant, inexpensive, and ubiquitous in many traditional recipes.
This versatile dish is perfect for anyone who loves tacos, nachos , or Mexican cuisine in general. It can be served over almost any meat but we recommend Braised Chicken and Julia Child prefers it over an omelet. This recipe is perfect for the summer months when you have an abundance of vegetables and herbs lying around.
Sweet roasted bell peppers mingle with sausage on this grilled pizza, but dried chili flakes also come into play, in the form of a chili oil that is drizzled on top. Grilling the pizza ensures an irresistibly crunchy crust. It can be made from scratch or sped up by starting with store-bought pizza dough. No grill? Try making it with the skillet pizza recipe method instead.
This recipe is the perfect meatless meal. Red bell peppers are stuffed with protein-packed quinoa and salty feta. Serve this with a side salad for an easy weeknight dinner. These small and slightly sweet peppers are generally mild, but one in every handful will be surprisingly spicy. Instead of placing the peppers directly under the broiler, we give them a little room by setting them in the middle of the oven.
Ratings and reviews
This extra distance allows them to roast a bit before their skins blister. Get our Basic Roasted Bell Peppers recipe. The sweetness of the bell peppers plays off the golden raisins in the filling, and the vegetal note is heightened by the herbs. Chiles rellenos fillings can range from ground or stewed meats to a medley of vegetables, but this version sticks to classic cheese and features serrano peppers. Get our Chiles Rellenos recipe.
Serve these stuffed peppers them as a vegetarian main course or as a starter. Broiling the peppers gives them a nice outer char and leaves the filling browned and bubbling. With Anaheim chiles, poblanos, and dried Aleppo peppers , this dish is always a big hit. Get our Chicken Chile Verde recipe. Use a variety of small peppers for pickling, such as baby bells, Cubanelles, or banana peppers. They combine on a sandwich roll with chicken breasts are dipped in buttermilk, then dredged in flour seasoned with paprika, black pepper, and ground mustard.
Pasilla chiles in their dried and ground form mingle with chiles de arbol a small, spicy Mexican pepper , tomatoes, vinegar, cilantro, scallions, and pumpkin seeds in this blended taqueria-style salsa. Get our Papalote Salsa recipe. This gooey dip features Anaheim chiles, poblano peppers, and serranos, along with onion, garlic, Roma tomatoes, and Mexican spices.
- The Sharp Edge of Love: Extreme Sex Mythic Passion Primal Intensity.
- Seasonal Produce: Chili Peppers - My Food and Family.
- Purchasing Chili Peppers.
- The basics of superconductivity.
- Safe, Secure Baby & Toddler: Effectively Baby Proof your Home and Car for the Safety of You & your Child.
- All About Chile Peppers.
- Pallative Medicine: General Practice: The Integrative Approach Series.
Leave out the chicken and you have a hearty vegetarian dip packed with cheese and black beans. As the name implies, this hot sauce is jam-packed with spicy serrano peppers, plus lime juice, garlic and onion powders, cider vinegar, and salt. But use it within 2 weeks, or the freshness starts to fade. Get our Serrano Hot Sauce recipe. This is actually milder than the first habanero hot sauce we brewed up, but definitely still for heat seekers only.
If you want to soften it with a little sweetness, try this habanero-infused Smoked Cherry Hot Sauce , which is still plenty spicy. Get our Habanero Orange Hot Sauce recipe. Minced serrano or jalapeno peppers spice up a compound butter also spiked with tequila and lime juice. Perfect for patting on seared or grilled steaks or fish or chicken, or corn, or…anything savory, really.
A simple but flavorful sauce that lends both spice and creamy coolness to all sorts of grilled or roasted meats or veggies, this can also be used as an easy dip try it with sweet potato chips.
- Hallelujah Song?
- Politics, Identity, and Mexico-s Indigenous Rights Movements (Cambridge Studies in Contentious Politics).
- MORE IN Food & Drink.
- Get fresh food news delivered to your inbox.
- Cayo Elina, A Zombie Chronicles Novel?
- Comment navigation.
- Otolaryngology: PEARLS AND POINTERS ON MANAGING PARATHYROID DISEASE (Audio-Digest Foundation Otolaryngology Continuing Medical Education (CME). Book 42).
Get our Jalapeno Cilantro Yogurt Spread recipe.